Groundwater depletion and associated CO2 emissions in India

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dc.contributor.author Mishra, Vimal
dc.contributor.author Asoka, Akarsh
dc.contributor.author Vatta, Kamal
dc.contributor.author Lall, Upmanu
dc.date.accessioned 2018-11-16T06:05:55Z
dc.date.available 2018-11-16T06:05:55Z
dc.date.issued 2018-10
dc.identifier.citation Mishra, Vimal; Asoka, Akarsh; Vatta, Kamal and Lall, Upmanu, "Groundwater depletion and associated CO2 emissions in India", Earth's Future, DOI: 10.1029/2018EF000939, Oct. 2018. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 2328-4277
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.1029/2018EF000939
dc.identifier.uri https://repository.iitgn.ac.in/handle/123456789/4004
dc.description.abstract India, the world's largest groundwater user, withdraws about 230 billion m3 groundwater annually for irrigation. Excessive groundwater pumping in India leads to rapid groundwater depletion and CO2emissions. Here, using multiple data sources (observation wells and GRACE) to estimate groundwater depletion in India, as well as the associated chemistry and the pumping energy requirements, we provide the first estimate of the potential CO2emissions due to bicarbonate extraction (CO2 release due to lowering of groundwater table) and groundwater pumping. We show that combined annual CO2release due to bicarbonate extraction and pumping in India is approximately 32.01?131.74 million tons (31.29?131.02 million tons for pumping and 0.72 million tons for bicarbonate). The total estimated groundwater depletion in India is in the range of 122 to 199 billion m3 from the observation wells (1996?2016) and GRACE (2002?2016). The CO2 emissions due to bicarbonate (~ 0.72 million tons per year) are dominated by those due to groundwater pumping (31.29?131.02 million tons/year) in India. However, the total (pumping and bicarbonate) estimated annual CO2 emission from groundwater is less than 2?7% of the total (annual) CO2emission from India. Based on our unique dataset collected from more than 500 farmers in Punjab, we show that a low?cost intervention for irrigation scheduling based on soil moisture information can provide a sustainable solution by reducing groundwater pumping and CO2 emissions. The environmental problem of groundwater depletion in India is much more serious than the associated CO2 emissions and hence there is an urgent need for a regulation of groundwater use.
dc.description.statementofresponsibility by Vimal Mishra, Akarsh Asoka, Kamal Vatta and Upmanu Lall
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Wiley en_US
dc.subject Groundwater depletion en_US
dc.subject CO2 emissions en_US
dc.subject India en_US
dc.title Groundwater depletion and associated CO2 emissions in India en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.relation.journal Earth's Future


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