First comparison of conventional activated sludge versus root-zone treatment for SARS-CoV-2 RNA removal from wastewaters: statistical and temporal significance

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dc.contributor.author Kumar, Manish
dc.contributor.author Kuroda, Keisuke
dc.contributor.author Joshi, Madhvi
dc.contributor.author Bhattacharya, Prosun
dc.contributor.author Barcelo, Damia
dc.coverage.spatial United States of America
dc.date.accessioned 2012-09-26T07:22:33Z
dc.date.available 2012-09-26T07:22:33Z
dc.date.issued 2021-12
dc.identifier.citation Kumar, Manish; Kuroda, Keisuke; Joshi, Madhvi; Bhattacharya, Prosun and Barcelo, Damia, "First comparison of conventional activated sludge versus root-zone treatment for SARS-CoV-2 RNA removal from wastewaters: statistical and temporal significance", Chemical Engineering Journal, DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2021.130635, vol. 425, Dec. 2021. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1385-8947
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.130635
dc.identifier.uri https://repository.iitgn.ac.in/handle/123456789/6688
dc.description.abstract In the initial pandemic phase, effluents from wastewater treatment facilities were reported mostly free from Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA, and thus conventional wastewater treatments were generally considered effective. However, there is a lack of first-hand data on i) comparative efficacy of various treatment processes for SARS-CoV-2 RNA removal; and ii) temporal variations in the removal efficacy of a given treatment process in the backdrop of active COVID-19 cases. This work provides a comparative account of the removal efficacy of conventional activated sludge (CAS) and root zone treatments (RZT) based on weekly wastewater surveillance data, consisting of forty-four samples, during a two-month period. The average genome concentration was higher in the inlets of CAS-based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the Sargasan ward (1.25 × 103 copies/ L), than that of RZT-based WWTP (7.07 × 102 copies/ L) in an academic institution campus of Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. ORF 1ab and S genes appeared to be more sensitive to treatment i.e., significantly reduced (p < 0.05) than N genes (p > 0.05). CAS treatment exhibited better RNA removal efficacy (p = 0.014) than RZT (p = 0.032). Multivariate analyses suggested that the effective genome concentration should be calculated based on the presence/absence of multiple genes. The present study stresses that treated effluents are not always free from SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and the removal efficacy of a given WWTP is prone to exhibit temporal variability owing to variations in active COVID-19 cases in the vicinity and genetic material accumulation over the time. Disinfection seems less effective than the adsorption and coagulation processes for SARS-CoV-2 removal. Results stress the need for further research on mechanistic insight on SARS-CoV-2 removal through various treatment processes taking solid–liquid partitioning into account.
dc.description.statementofresponsibility by Manish Kumar, Keisuke Kurod, Madhvi Joshi, Prosun Bhattacharya and Damia Barcelo
dc.format.extent vol. 425
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.subject SARS-CoV-2 en_US
dc.subject COVID-19 en_US
dc.subject Environmental Surveillance en_US
dc.subject Conventional activated sludge process en_US
dc.subject Root-zone treatment en_US
dc.subject Wastewater based epidemiology en_US
dc.title First comparison of conventional activated sludge versus root-zone treatment for SARS-CoV-2 RNA removal from wastewaters: statistical and temporal significance en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.relation.journal Chemical Engineering Journal


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