Evaluating the connectivity of the Yamuna and the Sarasvati during the Holocene: evidence from geochemical provenance of sediment in the Markanda river valley, India

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dc.contributor.author Singh, Ajit
dc.contributor.author Ray, Jyotiranjan S.
dc.contributor.author Jain, Vikrant
dc.contributor.author Mahala, Milan Kumar
dc.coverage.spatial United States of America
dc.date.accessioned 2022-02-03T08:03:06Z
dc.date.available 2022-02-03T08:03:06Z
dc.date.issued 2022-04
dc.identifier.citation Singh, Ajit; Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Jain, Vikrant and Mahala, Milan Kumar, “Evaluating the connectivity of the Yamuna and the Sarasvati during the Holocene: evidence from geochemical provenance of sediment in the Markanda river valley, India”, Geomorphology, DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2022.108124, vol. 402, Apr. 2022. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0169-555X
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2022.108124
dc.identifier.uri https://repository.iitgn.ac.in/handle/123456789/7450
dc.description.abstract In the northwest Indo-Gangetic plains, the linkage of the Ghaggar-Hakra paleochannel with the Sarasvati River of early Indian literature and the Harappan (or Indus) civilization poses an important case for understanding drainage reorganization and human-landscape interactions. Among the major paleochannels of the Ghaggar-Hakra, sediment provenance studies on the paleo-Sutlej branch show its connectivity with the Sutlej catchment during the Holocene. However, evaluation of the role of fluvial morphodynamics on the Harappan settlements remains restricted because of limited effort to identify drainage reorganization of the paleo-Yamuna and its connectivity to the Ghaggar-Hakra paleochannel. Here we focus on the sediment deposits in the Markanda Valley, upstream of the northernmost purported paleochannel (Y1) of the river Yamuna, to explore the possible connectivity of the Yamuna catchment with the Ghaggar-Hakra paleochannel through Y1. We analyzed sediment samples from fan surfaces, fluvial terraces, and the modern riverbed for trace element and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry to identify source signatures. Chronology of the samples, available through Singh et al. (2021), shows aggradation of the fan (57.7?ka) and T-1 to T-5 fluvial terraces during 13.1 to 6.0?ka, and deposition of paleoflood sediment during 3.9-3.8?ka. Results of provenance analysis suggest that sediment in the Markanda Valley was primarily derived from the silicate rocks of the Subathu-Dagshai-Kasauli Formations and the Siwalik Group of the Sub-Himalayas, thus implying that the river Yamuna was not connected to the ancient Ghaggar-Hakra river system (the Sarasvati) through the paleochannel Y1 during the Holocene. The Late Holocene sediment in the Ghaggar-Hakra plains (<4.5?ka), like the sediment in the Markanda Valley, was derived from the sub-Himalaya and transported through Y1, whereas the depositional pathway for the older sediment (>4.5?ka), having sources in the Himalayan hinterland, was likely the southernmost paleochannel (Y2) of the Yamuna.
dc.description.statementofresponsibility by Ajit Singh, Jyotiranjan S. Ray, Vikrant Jain and Milan Kumar Mahala
dc.format.extent vol. 402
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.subject Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry en_US
dc.subject Ghaggar-Hakra drainage reorganization en_US
dc.subject Sarasvati River en_US
dc.subject Harappan Indus civilization en_US
dc.subject Ghaggar-Hakra plains en_US
dc.title Evaluating the connectivity of the Yamuna and the Sarasvati during the Holocene: evidence from geochemical provenance of sediment in the Markanda river valley, India en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.relation.journal Geomorphology


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